Pharmacoeconomics: Cost of Illness Studies
Hygeia J. D. Med. Vol.1 (1) 2009, 46-49
(ISSN 0975 6221)
Type of Article
Kishore Gnana Sam1 , Kuriachan M. A2 , Subash Philip3*
1. Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Karnataka , India .
2. Govt. College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Medical College, Calicut , Kerala , India .
3.Crescent College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Madayipara, Payangadi, Kannur, Kerala , India .
Cost-of-illness studies measure the economic burden of a disease and estimate the maximum amount that could potentially be saved or gained if a disease were to be eradicated. Direct medical costs and indirect costs are measured using top down and bottom up approaches Human Capital approach, Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) approach and Friction Costs approach respectively. The perspectives may measure costs to society, the health care system, third-party payers, businesses, the government, and participants and their families. Incidence based studies, estimate lifetime costs, measure the costs of an illness from onset to conclusion for cases beginning within the period of the study, usually a year. Incidence costs include the discounted, lifetime medical, morbidity, and mortality costs for the incident cohort. Prevalence-based studies measure the costs of an illness in a year, regardless of the date of onset and include all medical care costs and morbidity costs for a disease. Indirect costs include the loss of resources due to morbidity and mortality, which inherently places a monetary value on the value of life. The human capital method is the most common approach used to calculate the indirect costs of an illness. The costs attributable to an illness depend largely on how the illness is defined diagnostically. Studies typically use the International Classification of Diseases, as a basis of defining the illness of interest and whether to include secondary diagnoses. The appropriate data source to use for a cost-of-illness study varies by the illness, perspective, and approach of the study.
Key words: Cost of illness, diabetes, Direct medical costs and indirect costs, Pharmacoeconomics
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